quarta-feira, 16 de agosto de 2017

Salsinha como alimento funcional

Texto:
Elisa Akemi Yokoyama - Acadêmica de Nutrição - UNITAU
Marcos Roberto Furlan - Engenheiro Agrônomo - Professor Universitário
 

Alimentos funcionais, de acordo com o Ministério da Saúde (1), "são alimentos ou ingredientes que produzem efeitos benéficos à saúde, além de suas funções nutricionais básicas", e são caracterizados "por oferecer vários benefícios à saúde, além do valor nutritivo inerente à sua composição química, podendo desempenhar um papel potencialmente benéfico na redução do risco de doenças crônicas degenerativas, como câncer e diabetes, dentre outras."

De origem europeia, a salsinha, Petroselinum crispus, é considerada um alimento funcional, pois fornece nutrientes para o organismo humano e previne doenças, como as relacionadas ao aparelho urinário. Seu uso mais comum é na culinária, como condimento.

Seus usos medicinais ocorrem desde a antiguidade, como, por exemplo, por gregos e romanos. A espécie era usada principalmente como diurética. E com pesquisas mais atuais, demonstrou que também possui potencial como antimicrobiana e antioxidante.

Do ponto de vista nutricional e de acordo com a Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos (2), a salsinha se destaca nos seguintes nutrientes: 117 mg de cálcio, 51,7 mg de Vitamina C, 3,2 mg de ferro e 711 mg de potássio por 100 gramas de parte comestível. É importante ressaltar que possui 1743 μg de equivalente retinol e 872 μg de equivalente de atividade de retinol.

Os alimentos de origem vegetal são um grupo de compostos, conhecidos como carotenoides, fontes indiretas de vitamina A, contendo carotenoides pró-vitamina A. Após serem consumidos são convertidos em vitamina A (moléculas lipossolúveis). No organismo uma das formas ativas desta vitamina é o Retinol. (3)
 
Apesar de existirem vários carotenoides antioxidantes nos alimentos, apenas alguns possuem atividade de vitamina A significativa, pois dependem da absorção e conversão em retinol. 
 
O fígado desempenha papel importante no armazenamento da vitamina A. O retinol no fígado possui três destinos: I. Ao ser ligado a proteína celular fixadora de retinol (CRBP) controlando concentrações livres de retinol que podem ser tóxicas. II. Pode ser armazenado em 50 a 80% no fígado. III. Ligado a proteína transtirretina, o retinol deixa o fígado e vai para a corrente sanguínea sendo transportado para os tecidos periféricos (3).

A vitamina A possui papel essencial no auxílio da função visual, crescimento, desenvolvimento, funções imunológicas e reprodutivas.

Na Referência de Ingestão Diária (DRI), a Ingestão Diária Recomendada (RDA) de vitamina A para adultos, dependendo do sexo, é de RDA= 700 - 900 RAE /dia. A quantidade de atividade de retinol encontrada na salsinha consegue suprir a RDA de vitamina A (retinol)/dia, em 100 gramas de parte comestível.

1. http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/dicas/220_alimentos_funcionais.html

2. http://www.unicamp.br/nepa/taco/

3. Krause: alimentos, nutrição e dietoterapia / L. Kathleen Mahan, Sylvia Escott – Stump, Janice L. Raymond – Rio de Janeiro, 2012.

terça-feira, 15 de agosto de 2017

Do the Pros of Brown Rice Outweigh the Cons of Arsenic?

Resenha do artigo: Radicais livres e os principais antioxidantes da dieta

Resenha:

Leticia Tiemi Saito - Nutricionista - tiemi.le@gmail.com
Marcos Roberto Furlan - Engenheiro Agrônomo

Alimentos funcionais são aqueles que previnem doenças e fornecem nutrientes. Uma das principais justificativas para a prevenção de doenças é a presença de antioxidantes que combatem os radicais livres.

Na excelente revisão realizada por Bianchi e Antunes (1999), os autores explicam como e onde ocorrem a formação dos radicais livres no organismo e como são controlados pelos antioxidantes.

De acordo com os autores, os radicais livres são moléculas altamente instáveis, que podem danificar diversas substâncias (proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos e DNA), e por este motivo, precisam ser inativadas permanentemente. Quando nós temos um desbalanço entre os níveis de radicais livres presentes no organismo e os mecanismos antioxidantes, nós temos o que chamamos de estresse oxidativo, responsável por ocasionar dano celular.

Os antioxidantes vão agir impedindo a formação dos radicais livres, interceptando-os ou reparando os danos causados. 

Os principais antioxidantes indicados pelos autores são: 

- vitamina C e E (presentes na laranja, morango, abacate, acerola, inibindo peroxidação lipídica e conferindo proteção à membrana de DNA). 

- vitamina A tem papel protetor contra tumores, está amplamente presente nos alimentos ricos em beta caroteno, como o mamão e a cenoura. 

- ácido elágico (presente na uva, morango e nozes, prevenção contra cânceres relacionados ao tabagismo) 

- curcumina (presente na cúrcuma, inibe peroxidação lipídica e confere proteção ao dano celular)

- epicatequina e epigalocatequina (presentes no chá verde e preto, inibidores do processo de carcinogênese)

- minerais como zinco, cobre e selênio também são importantes para um sistema antioxidante eficaz

Ou seja, uma dieta rica em antioxidantes reduz o risco de desenvolvimento de diversas doenças.

Referência
BIANCHI, Maria de Lourdes Pires and ANTUNES, Lusânia Maria Greggi. Radicais livres e os principais antioxidantes da dieta. Rev. Nutr. [online]. 1999, vol.12, n.2 [cited 2017-08-15], pp.123-130. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-52731999000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso>. ISSN 1678-9865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52731999000200001.

quinta-feira, 10 de agosto de 2017

Curta Agroecologia - Roça na Cidade

Artigo sobre efeito do alecrim nos níveis de glicose e de perfil lipídico

Resenha:
Leticia Tiemi Saito - Nutricionista - tiemi.le@gmail.com
Marcos Roberto Furlan - Engenheiro Agrônomo

Muitas espécies condimentares são utilizadas para o tratamento e a prevenção de doenças crônicas, como, por exemplo, diabetes, hipercolesterolemia e hipertrigliceridemia. Uma destas plantas é o alecrim, cujo nome científico é Rosmarinus officinalis. É uma espécie pertencente à família Lamiaceae e amplamente distribuída na Europa e no Sudeste asiático. No Brasil ocorre em boa parte do território, inclusive como ornamental. 

Além do uso na medicina tradicional, principalmente como antioxidante, tônico e anti-séptico, o alecrim consta em várias Farmacopeias como planta medicinal ou ingrediente de fitoterápicos.

Sua ação antioxidante tem sido consideravelmente estudada, assim como suas outras atividades farmacológicas. Labban et al. (2014) realizaram pesquisa com objetivo de investigar os efeitos do pó das folhas do alecrim nos níveis de glicose e de perfil lipídico em 44 adultos humanos, divididos em três grupos (2 g/dia, 5 g/dia e 10 g/dia de pó das folhas de alecrim, por um período de 4 semanas).

Os resultados indicaram diminuição no nível de glicose no sangue nos grupos que receberam 5g e 10g da erva/ dia. E não foi verificada diferença significativa entre esses dois grupos.

Os valores totais de colesterol e de triglicerídeos foram reduzidos no tratamento com as três doses. O grupo que recebeu 10g/dia apresentou melhor resposta na redução dos níveis de LDL e aumento de HDL.


No que diz respeito à peroxidação lipídica, 10g/ dia de alecrim diminuiu significativamente os valores de malondialdeido e de glutationa redutase, ao passo que aumentou significativamente os valores de vitamina C e de beta-caroteno.

Na pesquisa, os autores concluíram que o pó do condimento, graças aos compostos fenólicos do alecrim, melhora não somente a hiperglicemia mas também a dislipidemia em dose dependente. Também verificaram que ocorre diminuição da peroxidação lipídica por meio do aumento dos níveis de antioxidantes, proporcionando redução nos riscos de desenvolver de doenças crônicas, como as doenças cardiovasculares.

Referência:
LABBAN, L.; MUSTAFA, U.E.; IBRAHIM, Y.M. The Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaves Powder on Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Perodoxation. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2014, 5, 297-304.

Link para o artigo:
Rosmarinus officinalis

terça-feira, 8 de agosto de 2017

Resenha: artigo sobre ação antioxidante do alecrim e da sálvia

Resenha:
Leticia Tiemi Saito - Nutricionista - tiemi.le@gmail.com
Marcos Roberto Furlan - Engenheiro Agrônomo

A maioria dos condimentos possui forte ação antioxidante, comprovada por meio de inúmeras pesquisas científicas. Os antioxidantes protegem o organismo do excesso dos radicais livres, os quais são moléculas instáveis eletronicamente e com capacidade de se associar rapidamente com outras moléculas de carga positiva. Quando em excesso oxidam ou reagem com moléculas que desempenham importantes funções no organismo, podendo causar envelhecimento precoce, câncer e doenças neurodegenerativas, como, por exemplo, Alzheimer.

Dentre as plantas condimentares com essa atividade farmacológica, a família Lamiaceae se destaca por fornecer variedades e cultivares de manjericões (da espécie (Ocimum basilicum), de hortelãs ou mentha (do gênero Mentha), de alecrins (da espécie Rosmarinus officinalis), de oréganos e manjeronas (do gênero Origanum) e de sálvia (Salvia officinalis), dentre outras.

Como exemplo de pesquisa relacionada ao tema, Bozin et al. (2007) realizaram análise d​​os óleos essenciais de alecrim (R. officinalis) e de sálvia (S. officinalis) por meio de espectrometria de massa e cromatografia gasosa, e na avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana e das atividades antioxidantes.

Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, os autores verificaram para ambos os óleos, maior eficiência contra Escherichia coliSalmonella typhiS. enteritidis e Shigella sonei, microrganismos responsáveis por ocasionar doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos e pela água.

O óleo de alecrim também apresentou atividade antifúngica importante, inclusive contra Candida albicans.

A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por meio da capacidade de eliminação de radicais livres (RSC), medida por meio da DPPH e de radicais hidroxilas, em conjunto com o efeito sobre peroxidação lipídica (LP). O método DPPH avalia a capacidade antioxidante por meio da atividade sequestradora do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH).

Os principais resultados foram: os óleos reduziram a formação de radicais DPPH (IC50) (3,82 ug / ml para o alecrim e 1,78 ug / ml para a sálvia), dependendo da dose. A inibição forte de LP em ambos os sistemas de indução foi especialmente observada para o óleo essencial de alecrim.

Referência

Bozin B,  Mimica-dukic N,  Samojlik I, Jovin  E. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Rosemary and Sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) Essential Oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55: 7879–7885.

Link do artigo:

Sálvia


UFV - FITOCOSMÉTICO - Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular obtém primeira patente concedida no Brasil

07/08/2017
Marisa (esq.) e Virgínia (centro) contam com apoio de estudantes, como a doutoranda Nívea Pacheco

Já reconhecida pelas pesquisas que atestam a macaúba como fonte para a produção de biodiesel, a UFV confirma agora uma propriedade cosmética dessa palmeira, encontrada em boa parte do território brasileiro. O Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (DBB) recebeu, em julho, a sua primeira carta patente concedida no Brasil com um sabonete que tem em sua fórmula o óleo da polpa de macaúba. A patente veio sete anos depois de o pedido ter sido depositado no Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) pelas professoras Marisa Alves Nogueira Diaz e Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo, em parceria com o Departamento de Fitotecnia (DFT) devido à participação do professor Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike e do técnico Francisco de Assis Lopes. Todo o processo teve o suporte da Comissão Permanente de Propriedade Intelectual, que auxiliou na elaboração de documentos para o depósito e acompanhamento do pedido até a concessão.

O sabonete produzido pelas pesquisadoras do DBB traz em sua fórmula uma mistura com óleo de macaúba, rico em betacaroteno (vitamina A), o que, segundo elas, confere um efeito sinérgico na restauração da epiderme. As professoras explicam que, “além de ser emoliente, prevenir o envelhecimento precoce contra radicais livres, a vitamina A - também conhecida como retinol - age na manutenção dos tecidos epiteliais”. O sabonete apresenta ainda em sua composição substâncias com propriedades bactericida e cicatrizante, que podem combater doenças, como dermatite e micose. O resultado, portanto, é um produto cujo uso contínuo ajuda na assepsia e na melhora da textura da pele, tornando-a mais suave devido ao alto poder emoliente do óleo de macaúba. As pesquisadoras também desenvolveram, com o óleo, um sabonete com ação terapêutica para prevenção e controle da mastite bovina. Esse produto, que também já teve o pedido de patente depositado, leva em sua composição extrato da planta Salvinia auriculata e derivados.

Marisa Diaz e Virgínia Pizziolo contam que a ideia da produção dos sabonetes foi uma sugestão do professor Sergio Motoike - coordenador da pesquisa em macaúba no programa de pós-graduação em Fitotecnia da UFV - e do técnico Francisco Lopes, que integra a equipe. Foram eles que forneceram às professoras o óleo da polpa, coletado na plantação que o grupo mantém na Estação Experimental de Araponga (MG). A qualidade do óleo é assegurada com a extração no tempo certo, antes de o fruto, perecível, estragar. Motoike já conhecia o trabalho das professoras com sabonete, o que, inclusive, as destaca na área de extensão. Desde 2007, a professora Marisa oferece, ininterruptamente, na Semana do Fazendeiro o curso de Sabão Rural e, desde 2009, o de Sabonete Medicinal, juntamente com a professora Virgínia. Ela também já esteve à frente do projeto Produção de sabão com propriedades farmacológicas aliada à conscientização ambiental e sustentabilidade através da reciclagem de óleo vegetal residual, apoiado pela Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (Fapemig).

Pesquisas

A patente obtida é a primeira das 11 já depositadas pelas professoras, que dividem a coordenação do Laboratório de Bioquímica e Química de Produtos Naturais (BioNat) da UFV. Ali, elas pesquisam e desenvolvem formulações antimicrobianas, antioxidantes e antitumorais a partir da flora e de microrganismos encontrados no entorno de Viçosa e na Mata Atlântica, e também por meio de síntese orgânica. Candeia da serra, quina da serra, losna, cravo, canela e calêndula são algumas das plantas mais estudadas devido às suas propriedades antimicrobiana e cicatrizante. É em torno da atividade cicatrizante, por sinal, que o estudante de doutorado do programa de pós-graduação em Bioquímica Aplicada Leandro Jose Gusmão vem realizando, sob orientação da professora Marisa, um estudo farmacológico e de farmacocinética da planta Remijia ferruginea. Com estudo in vivo, o objetivo é entender, por exemplo, o mecanismo de ação do produto desenvolvido a partir dessa planta, com grande capacidade cicatrizante. Outra linha de pesquisa do BioNat tem como foco o câncer de pele do tipo melanoma. A partir de compostos sintetizados no laboratório, elas desenvolvem formulações para o tratamento desse tipo de câncer.

As professoras, que são formadas em Farmácia e Bioquímica, reconhecem o longo caminho que há entre a obtenção de uma patente e a colocação do produto no mercado. Há uma série de testes a serem feitos. Muitos, inclusive, segundo explicam, não podem ser realizados na UFV, uma vez que a instituição não dispõe de um laboratório de farmacotécnica e farmacocinética, que daria mais agilidade e eficiência ao trabalho. Embora não haja ainda interação com uma empresa específica para a comercialização do sabonete - um dos muitos produtos desenvolvidos pelo BioNat - as professoras Marisa e Virgínia se dizem satisfeitas com os resultados das pesquisas, que têm sempre o apoio da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de MInas Gerais (Fapemig), do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) e da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes). Para elas, a patente é um importante reconhecimento do trabalho que realizam na UFV, onde ingressaram há pouco mais de uma década.

Adriana Passos
Divulgação Institucional
Há dez anos, as professoras oferecem cursos na Semana do Fazendeiro

Link:

Pesquisadores catalogam 100 plantas com propriedades medicinais da Caatinga

Após catalogar mais de cem variedades de plantas com propriedades medicinais da Caatinga, pesquisadores do Instituto Nacional do Semiárido (Insa) pretendem disponibilizar essas informações na internet.

Para coletar os dados sobre as espécies, os cientistas viajaram por mais de 30 mil quilômetros e entrevistaram mais de 200 integrantes de comunidades tradicionais e quilombolas em Pernambuco.

O catálogo em construção vai reunir plantas usadas como anti-inflamatórios, cicatrizantes e antibióticos.

Além de divulgar informações científicas, a ideia é preservar o conhecimento desenvolvido nessas comunidades. Hoje, 60% do mercado farmacêutico mundial produz medicamentos de base biológica, movimentando quase US$ 60 bilhões.

Assim, com o domínio sobre as propriedades terapêuticas dessas plantas é possível gerar renda e emprego com a constituição de uma cadeia produtiva a partir dessas espécies.

“Essas plantas do bioma Caatinga são as menos estudadas na sua biodiversidade. Ele é o menos protegido legalmente. O que a gente quer mostrar é que existe uma riqueza de compostos bioativos ainda não explorada”, disse a coordenadora do Núcleo de Bioprospecção e Conservação da Caatinga e professora da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Márcia Vanusa da Silva.

Depois de aplicados os questionários sobre as plantas, elas foram encaminhadas para laboratórios para serem analisadas características como a atividade biológica, a dosagem e a toxicidade. (Portal Brasil).

Link:

Agroecología para la producción de café: una alternativa sostenible para...

Literature Research on Nutrition - Browsing AGORA

Melissa officinalis

Uma publicação compartilhada por Marcos Roberto Furlan (@quintaisimortais) em

Confusões na horta medicinal - 28

Confusões na horta medicinal - 27

Confusões na horta medicinal - 26

One Plant, Many Uses: A Review of the Pharmacological Applications of Morinda citrifolia


Abstract

Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, is commonly used in popular medicine in Brazil. Many parts of the noni tree are utilized in such practices, including the roots, leaves and seeds. Through a search of online databases, the present article reviews 92 research studies on the biological actions of M. citrifolia. The paper will discuss the therapeutic effects of noni and its compounds in a variety of forms of presentation, focusing on studies that support its traditional use. A large and diverse number of properties were identified, which were divided into immunostimulatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antibacterial and anti-septic, antifungal, antiviral, leishmanicidal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and analgesic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, antiallergic, antiangiogenic, antiemetic and anti-nausea, anti-gastric ulcer and oesophagitis, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, photoprotective, anti-wrinkle and periodontal tissue regeneration activities. While it was concluded that although M. citrifolia is widely and successfully used for the treatment or prevention of various diseases, it should be consumed carefully, and only after exhaustive studies into its chemical constituents and mechanisms of action, both in in vitro and in vivo models, as well as clinical trials. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Artigo sobre interação entre plantas medicinais e retro-virais

Resenha:
Marcos Roberto Furlan - Professor e Engenheiro Agrônomo
Michelly Caldi - Farmacêutica (michellycaldi@gmail.com, www.dramichellycaldi.com.br)

Para indivíduos infectados pelo HIV, a "Highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART) tem demonstrado ótimos resultados, com melhoras consideráveis de seus parâmetros de saúde, apesar de que há ainda dúvidas quanto a natureza crônica da administração.

Nesse artigo, os autores demonstraram as interações que ocorrem entre extratos de plantas medicinais e os medicamentos anti-retrovirais usados ​​contra o HIV/AIDS. Dentre eles, o Efavirenz (EFV) e o nevirapina (NVP) são os principais componentes do HAART, ambos metabolizados pela CYP2B6, uma enzima que pode ser potencialmente inibida ou induzida por compostos encontrados em extratos de plantas medicinais.

As plantas medicinais analisadas foram Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa e Newbouldia laevis.

Foi verificado o potencial desses extratos medicinais para causar interação com o fármaco, sendo que o inibidor mais potente para CYP2B6 foi extrato de Hyptis suaveolens (IC50 = 19,09 ± 1,16 μg / mL), seguido pelo extrato de Myrothamnus flabellifolius (IC50 = 23,66 ± 4,86 ​​μg / mL), extrato de Launaea taraxacifolia (IC50 = 33,87 ± 1,54 μg / mL), e extrato de Boerhavia diffusa (IC50 = 34,93 ± 1,06 μg / mL). O extrato de Newbouldia laevis, no entanto, apresentou fracos efeitos inibitórios (IC50 = 100 ± 8,71 μg / mL) no CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia mostrou uma alta concentração de compostos fenólicos inibitórios da CYP450, como o ácido clorogênico e o ácido cafeico.

A principal conclusão dos autores, é que os fármacos que são metabolizados pelo CYP2B6 quando co-administrados com medicamentos à base de algumas plantas, podem ter suas concentrações afetadas, o que poderá levar à toxicidade.
Referência:

Thomford, N.E.; Awortwe, C.; Dzobo, K.; Adu, F.; Chopera, D.; Wonkam, A.; Skelton, M.; Blackhurst, D.; Dandara, C. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Resource-Limited Settings. Molecules 2016, 21, 211.

Effects of Copaiba Oil Topical Administration on Oral Wound Healing - Wagner - 2017 - Phytotherapy Research - Wiley Online Library


Abstract

The effects of topical copaiba oil extract and topical corticosteroid were assessed on oral wound healing in an in vivo model using 96 male Wistar rats. Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The animals were divided into: Control; Corticosteroid; Placebo and Copaiba oil Group. The animals received two daily applications of the products. The control group received only daily handling. Six rats in each group were euthanized at days 3, 5, 10 and 14. The animals were monitored daily to determine wound status. The weigh was assessed at day 0 and euthanasia day. The percentage of repair was calculated, and histopathological aspects were analyzed. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the results between groups and times of evaluation. Closing time was assessed through the log-rank test. The corticosteroid group lost more weight at days 10 and 14 than the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the healing time of corticosteroid group was longer than the control group (p = 0.007). No differences were observed between the copaiba oil group and the control group. We concluded that topical copaiba oil, in spite of being safe, did not accelerate the process of oral wound healing. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sabores Regionais 8 - Arroz

TV USP Informa n.º 58 - Gastronomia Sustentável

projeto Hortas Urbanas - ep. 03 - A escolha das espécies cultivadas

projeto Hortas Urbanas - ep. 02 - preparando o local para sua horta

projeto Hortas Urbanas - ep. 01 - a escolha do local

Horto de Plantas Medicinais (USP/ESALQ/GeWA)

Effects of Curcumin on Tobacco Smoke‐induced Hepatic MAPK Pathway Activation and Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition In Vivo


Abstract

Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for hepatic cancer. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by tobacco smoke is crucially involved in the initiation and development of cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play important roles in tobacco smoke-associated carcinogenesis including EMT process. The chemopreventive effect of curcumin supplementation against cancers has been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on MAPK pathway activation and EMT alterations, and then the preventive effect of curcumin was examined in the liver of BALB/c mice. Our results indicated that exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks led to activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and ERK5 pathways as well as activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in liver tissue. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke reduced the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the epithelial markers, while the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of the mesenchymal markers were increased. Treatment of curcumin effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-induced activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK pathways, AP-1 proteins and EMT alterations in the mice liver. Our data suggested the protective effect of curcumin in tobacco smoke-triggered MAPK pathway activation and EMT in the liver of BALB/c mice, thus providing new insights into the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated hepatic cancer. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Review of Garcinia mangostana and its Xanthones in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Complications


Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is coexistence of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension that causes cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and their complications, low quality and short lifespan. Garcinia mangostana and its xanthones such as α-mangostin have been shown desirable effects such as anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-diabetic and antiinflammatory effects in experimental studies. Various databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science with keywords of ‘Garcinia mangostana’, ‘mangosteen’, ‘α-mangostin’, ‘metabolic syndrome’, ‘hypoglycemic’, ‘antihyperglicemic’, ‘antidiabetic’, ‘hypotensive’, ‘antihypertensive’, ‘atherosclerosis’, ‘arteriosclerosis’ and ‘hyperlipidemia’ have been investigated in this search without publication time limitation. This study reviewed all pharmacological effects and molecular pathways of G. mangostana and its xanthones in the management of metabolic syndrome and its complications in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Based on these studies, mangosteen and its xanthones have good potential to design human studies for controlling and modification of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders such as obesity, disrupted lipid profile, diabetes and its complications. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Panax notoginseng Preparations for Unstable Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis



Abstract

This paper assessed the evidence of Panax notoginseng preparations in patients suffering from UAP using meta-analysis and systematic review methods. Methods were according to the Cochrane Handbook and analysed using Revman 5.3. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), Vip information database, Wanfang data and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of P. notoginseng preparations on UAP regardless of blinding, sex and language. The outcomes include all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, cardiovascular events, UAP symptoms, improvement of electrocardiogram and adverse events. Eighteen RCTs including 1828 patients were identified. The level of reporting is generally poor. Among 18 studies, 16 studies were prescribed P. notoginseng injections, and two studies were oral P. notoginseng preparations. Reduction of cardiovascular events (RR:0.35;95% CI:0.13 to 0.94), alleviation of angina pectoris symptoms (RR:1.23;95% CI 1.18 to 1.29), improvement of ECG (RR:1.22;95% CI 1.15 to 1.28) and reduced frequency of angina pectoris (MD:−1.48; 95% CI −2.49 to −0.48) were observed. Cardiac mortality and duration of angina pectoris were not statistically significant. Panax notoginseng is beneficial to UAP patients; the results of these reviews may have important implications to clinical work. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Achillea millefolium L.: A Review


Abstract

Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow) is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in traditional medicine of several cultures from Europe to Asia for the treatment of spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary, gynecological disorders, against inflammation and for wound healing. An extensive review of literature was made on A. millefolium L. using ethno botanical text books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, unpublished materials and scientific databases. The Plant List, International Plant Name Index and Kew Botanical Garden databases were used to authenticate the scientific names. Monoterpenes are the most representative metabolites constituting 90% of the essential oils in relation to the sesquiterpenes, and a wide range of chemical compounds have also been reported. Different pharmacological experiments in many in-vitro and in-vivo models have proved the potential of A. millefolium with antiinflammatory, antiulcer, anticancer activities etc. lending support to the rationale behind numerous of its traditional uses. Due to the noteworthy pharmacological activities, A. millefolium will be a better option for new drug discovery. The present review will comprehensively summarize the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of A. millefolium reported to date, with emphasis on more in vitro, clinical and pathological studies needed to investigate the unexploited potential of this plant. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Resultado de imagem para achillea millefolium

Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cells by Medicinal Plants and Their Derivatives: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Searching for new natural drugs that are capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to development of more effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Most of the natural drugs can be derived from plants that are used in traditional medicine and folk medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and introduce plants or plant derivatives that are effective on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 responses. To achieve this purpose, the search terms herb, herbal medicine, herbal drug, medicinal plant, phytochemical, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, natural compound, inflammation, inflammatory diseases, Th1, Th17, T helper 1 or T helper 17 were used separately in Title/Keywords/Abstract in Web of Science and PubMed databases. In articles investigating the effect of the medicinal plants and their derivatives in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells, the effects of eight extracts of the medicinal plants, 21 plant-based compounds and some of their derivatives, and eight drugs derived from the medicinal plants' compounds in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells were reviewed. The results showed that medicinal plants and their derivates are able to suppress Th17 and Th1 T cell functions as well as cytokine secretion and differentiation. The results can be used to produce herbal drugs that suppress Th, especially Th17, responses. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Neuroprotective Natural Products for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease by Targeting the Autophagy–Lysosome Pathway: A Systematic Review


Abstract

The autophagy–lysosome pathway (ALP) is a primary means by which damaged organelles and long-lived proteins are removed from cells and their components recycled. Impairment of the ALP has been found to be linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. In recent years, some active compounds derived from plants have been found to regulate the ALP and to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models of PD, raising the possibility that autophagy enhancement may be an effective therapeutic strategy in PD treatment. In this review, we summarize recent findings of natural products that enhance ALP and thereby protect against PD. Research articles were retrieved from PubMed using relevant keywords in combination. Papers related to the topic were identified, and then the reliability of the experiments was assessed in terms of methodology. The results suggest that targeting the ALP with natural products is a promising strategy for PD treatment. However, risk of bias exists in some studies due to the defective methodology. Rigorous experimental design following the guidelines of autophagy assays, molecular target identification and in vivo efficacy evaluation is critical for the development of ALP enhancers for PD treatment in future studies. 

Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

domingo, 6 de agosto de 2017

Antioxidant Extraction and Determination through DPPH assay

Avaliação in vitro da atividade ateroprotetora dos extratos de Jaboticaba (Plinia cauliflora) e Juçara (Euterpe edulis) - LEYSLE FERNANDA HENCKEL ALVES (26º SIC UFSC)

Avaliação do potencial antioxidante da folha de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris L.) - LUCAS LENTZ (26º SIC UFSC)

TEMA 47. ANTINEOPLÁSICOS DERIVADOS DE PLANTAS

Efeito antitumoral de alcaloides β-carbolínicos associados a fármacos antitumorais - GUILHERME ZIRBEL (26º SIC UFSC)

Desenvolvimento de extratos nanoestruturados a partir de Ilex paraguariensis com potencial emprego no tratamento da doença de parkinson - Samantha Manuela Ferri Tavares (26º SIC UFSC)

Estudo de liberação in vitro de flavonoides C-glicosídeos a partir de nanopartículas de PLGA contendo Cecropia glaziovii Snethl. - Crislaine Góes Ferreira (26º SIC UFSC)

AVALIAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE, EXTRESSE OXIDATIVO E ATIVIDADE ANTITUMORAL DA CASCA DE NOZ PECÃ [Caryaillinoinensis(wangenh) C. Koch] MOSTRAR MAIS - DJAÍNI REGINA MARCHI (26º SIC UFSC)

Estudos ADMET in vitro e screening com ensaios de inibição enzimática de compostos isolados de plantas medicinais e de seus derivados sintéticos isolados de plantas medicinais e de seus análogos - GIOVANNI LISBÔA PINHEIRO (26º SIC UFSC)

Extratos de plantas no controle alternativo do mofo branco (Sclerotium rolfsii) na cultura de tomate - GABRIELA CAROLINA DOS SANTOS (26º SIC UFSC)

O gênero Sargassum na costa de Santa Catarina: análises morfológicas e moleculares - KELY PAULA SALVI (26º SIC UFSC)

Conheça o poder dos Alimentos Antioxidantes

Análise da Atividade Antioxidante Total

POTENCIAL ANTIOXIDANTE DOS EXTRATOS OBTIDOS DA SEMENTE DO BUTIÁ DA PRAIA (BUTIA CATARINENSIS) - Thatyara Cristine de Souza Pereira (26°SIC UFSC)

ALIMENTACION ¿De que hablamos cuando decimos fitoquímicos?

Sabe o que são fitoquímicos?

O que são Espécies Reativas?

Investigação fitoquímica de Calea pinnatifida Less., Asteraceae - Rafaela de Jesus Souza (26º SIC UFSC)

Produtos Naturais como método alternativo ao combate de fungos apodrecedores de madeira - Natalia Letícia da Silva (26º SIC UFSC)

Estudo pré-clínico para comprovação da atividade anti-inflamatória da Jungia sellowii Less. utilizando modelo experimental in vivo - Yeo Jim Kinoshita Moon (26º SIC UFSC)

Microencapsulação de constituintes bioativos - LUIZA CIRRA PEREIRA (26º SIC UFSC)

Interação planta medicinal - Paula Freire Brambila (26º SIC UFSC)

sábado, 5 de agosto de 2017

Liver Cleanse Food I Liver Ko Swasth Rakhne Ke Upay I Liver ko saf kaise...

Eucalyptus medicinal uses for Diabetes and bacterial infections:

Memory Booster Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)and its medicinal uses :

Cardamom Benefits I Elaichi I For Cancer,Nausea,Urinary problems

Top Healthy fruits For Your Body!!

Arsenic in Rice Milk, Rice Krispies, and Brown Rice Syrup

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Agulhamento Deficiência Qi (Cansaço), al...

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Tristeza - Pulmão - Prof. Fabio e Leandro

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Triplo Aquecedor - (Sanjiao) - Anatomia ...

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Fatores Patogênicos Externos - Vento - Feng

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Frio - Rim - Prof. Fabio e Leandro

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Umidade - Baço - Parte 2 - Prof. Fabio e...

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Umidade - Baço - Parte 1 - Prof. Fabio e...

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Raiva - Fígado - Parte 2 - Prof. Fabi...

Medicina Chinesa - Acupuntura - Raiva - Fígado - Parte 1 - Prof. Fabio...

Hora da Fitoterapia - Erva Mate com José Sencini

quinta-feira, 3 de agosto de 2017

Lutein, found in leafy greens, may counter cognitive aging

Date: July 25, 2017

Source: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Summary:
Spinach and kale are favorites of those looking to stay physically fit, but they also could keep consumers cognitively fit, according to a new study. The study, which included 60 adults aged 25 to 45, found that middle-aged participants with higher levels of lutein -- a nutrient found in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, as well as avocados and eggs -- had neural responses that were more on par with younger individuals than with their peers.
Avocado and spinach smoothies.
Credit: © fortyforks / Fotolia

Spinach and kale are favorites of those looking to stay physically fit, but they also could keep consumers cognitively fit, according to a new study from University of Illinois researchers.

The study, which included 60 adults aged 25 to 45, found that middle-aged participants with higher levels of lutein -- a nutrient found in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, as well as avocados and eggs -- had neural responses that were more on par with younger individuals than with their peers. The findings were published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.

"Now there's an additional reason to eat nutrient-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables, eggs and avocados," said Naiman Khan, a professor of kinesiology and community health at Illinois. "We know these foods are related to other health benefits, but these data indicate that there may be cognitive benefits as well."

Most other studies have focused on older adults, after there has already been a period of decline. The Illinois researchers chose to focus on young to middle-aged adults to see whether there was a notable difference between those with higher and lower lutein levels.

"As people get older, they experience typical decline. However, research has shown that this process can start earlier than expected. You can even start to see some differences in the 30s," said Anne Walk, a postdoctoral scholar and first author of the paper. "We want to understand how diet impacts cognition throughout the lifespan. If lutein can protect against decline, we should encourage people to consume lutein-rich foods at a point in their lives when it has maximum benefit."

Lutein is a nutrient that the body can't make on its own, so it must be acquired through diet. Lutein accumulates in brain tissues, but also accumulates in the eye, which allows researchers to measure levels without relying on invasive techniques.

The Illinois researchers measured lutein in the study participants' eyes by having participants look into a scope and respond to a flickering light. Then, using electrodes on the scalp, the researchers measured neural activity in the brain while the participants performed a task that tested attention.

"The neuro-electrical signature of older participants with higher levels of lutein looked much more like their younger counterparts than their peers with less lutein," Walk said. "Lutein appears to have some protective role, since the data suggest that those with more lutein were able to engage more cognitive resources to complete the task."

Next, Khan's group is running intervention trials, aiming to understand how increased dietary consumption of lutein may increase lutein in the eye, and how closely the levels relate to changes in cognitive performance.

"In this study we focused on attention, but we also would like to understand the effects of lutein on learning and memory. There's a lot we are very curious about," Khan said.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Alicia R. Covello, Ginger E. Reeser, Billy R. Hammond, Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond, Naiman A. Khan. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2017; 9 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00183

Cite This Page:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Lutein, found in leafy greens, may counter cognitive aging." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 July 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170725122004.htm>.

Health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are confirmed, but just for the upper class

Only the most advantaged people actually benefit from the Mediterranean diet, Italian study says

Date: August 1, 2017

Source:
Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed I.R.C.C.S.Summary:The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease but only if you are rich or highly educated. This is the surprising finding by researchers who performed a study on over 18,000 subjects.
A Mediterranean diet has been linked to a reduction in cardiovascular risk. However, the health benefits are observed only in people with higher educational level and/or greater household income. No actual benefits were observed for the less advantaged groups.
Credit: © golubovy / Fotolia

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease but only if you are rich or highly educated. This is the surprising finding by researchers from the Italian I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, who performed a study on over 18,000 subjects recruited within the Moli-sani study and published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.

Cardiovascular advantages associated with the Mediterranean diet are well-known but now the Italian study, conducted by a team of researchers at the Department of Epidemiology and Prevention led by Giovanni de Gaetano, reveals that such benefits are strongly influenced by the socioeconomic position of people. Basically, given a comparable adherence to this eating pattern, the study has shown that the reduction in cardiovascular risk is observed only in people with higher educational level and/or greater household income. No actual benefits were observed for the less advantaged groups.

"The cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet in a general population are well known -- says Marialaura Bonaccio, researcher at the Department of Epidemiology and Prevention and first author of the study -- Yet for the first time our study has revealed that the socioeconomic position is able to modulate the health advantages linked to Mediterranean diet. In other words, a person from low socioeconomic status who struggles to follow a Mediterranean model, is unlikely to get the same advantages of a person with higher income, despite the fact that they both similarly adhere to the same healthy diet."

Neuromed researchers went further and tried to unravel the possible mechanisms underlying such disparities.

"Given a comparable adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the most advantaged groups were more likely to report a larger number of indices of high quality diet as opposed to people with low socioeconomic status -- explains Licia Iacoviello, head of the Laboratory of nutritional and molecular Epidemiology at the Department -- For example, within those reporting an optimal adherence to the Mediterranean diet (as measured by a score comprising fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, fish, fats, meat, dairy products and alcohol intake) people with high income or higher educational level consumed products richer in antioxidants and polyphenols, and had a greater diversity in fruit and vegetables choice. We have also found a socioeconomic gradient in the consumption of whole-grain products and in the preferred cooking methods. These substantial differences in consuming products belonging to Mediterranean diet lead us to think that quality of foods may be as important for health as quantity and frequency of intake."

"Our results should promote a serious consideration of socioeconomic scenario of health -- comments Giovanni de Gaetano, director of the Department -- Socioeconomic disparities in health are growing also in access to healthy diets. During the very last years, we documented a rapid shifting from the Mediterranean diet in the whole population, but it might also be that the weakest citizens tend to buy 'Mediterranean' food with lower nutritional value. We cannot be keeping on say that the Mediterranean diet is good for health -- de Gaetano concludes -- if we are not able to guarantee an equal access to it."

The Moli-sani Project

Started in March 2005, it involves about 25,000 citizens living in the Molise region. The aim is to learn about environmental and genetic factors underlying cardiovascular disease, cancer and degenerative pathologies. Moli-sani study, now based in I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, has transformed an entire Italian region in a large research lab.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed I.R.C.C.S.. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello on behalf of the Moli-sani Study Investigators. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with cardiovascular protection in higher but not in lower socioeconomic groups: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2017 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx145

Cite This Page:
Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed I.R.C.C.S.. "Health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are confirmed, but just for the upper class: Only the most advantaged people actually benefit from the Mediterranean diet, Italian study says." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 August 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170801171047.htm>.

Caffeine shortens recovery time from general anesthesia

Date: August 1, 2017

Source: American Physiological Society (APS)

Summary:
Caffeine helps quickly boost wakefulness following general anesthesia, a new study finds. The stimulant — used daily by more than 90 percent of adults in the U.S. — appears to alter physiological function in two different ways to shorten recovery time.

Caffeine helps quickly boost wakefulness following general anesthesia, a new study finds. The stimulant -- used daily by more than 90 percent of adults in the U.S. -- appears to alter physiological function in two different ways to shorten recovery time. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Caffeine works in two different ways to wake us up. It raises the body's level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a compound that regulates cell function. Previous studies have shown that an increase in cAMP levels speeds up recovery from general anesthesia. Caffeine also acts as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Activity in the nervous system slows down when adenosine binds to its receptors, causing sleepiness. An adenosine receptor antagonist is a substance that prevents adenosine -- a compound that controls nerve activity -- from binding to its receptors (molecules on the surface of the cells).

Researchers exposed adult rats to a 3 percent concentration of a general anesthetic for one hour to simulate the effects of undergoing a brief surgical procedure. During the last 10 minutes of exposure, the animals received an injection of either caffeine or a saline solution (the control group). The research team administered the tests on two more occasions with increasingly higher doses of caffeine. The caffeine group awoke from anesthesia more quickly than the control group each time. The reduction in waking time became much more significant -- up to 55 percent more quickly -- with the highest dosage.

To determine exactly how caffeine reduces waking time, the researchers administered additional trials, exposing the rats to another adenosine receptor antagonist (preladenant) or a plant-based supplement in the mint family (forskolin) that, similar to caffeine, elevates cAMP. Both of these agents caused reductions in waking time, but they were not as significant as the caffeine trials, in which both adenosine receptors were blocked and cAMP levels increased. These results suggest that "some of the accelerated recovery from anesthesia produced by caffeine is most likely mediated by block of adenosine receptors, but that elevation of [cAMP] accounts for the majority of the effect," the research team wrote.

Story Source:

Materials provided by American Physiological Society (APS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Robert Fong, Suhail Khokhar, Atif Newaz Chowdhury, Kelvin G Xie, Josiah Hiu-yuen Wong, Aaron P. Fox, Zheng Xie. Caffeine Accelerates Recovery from General Anesthesia via Multiple Pathways. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2017; jn.00393.2017 DOI: 10.1152/jn.00393.2017

Cite This Page:
American Physiological Society (APS). "Caffeine shortens recovery time from general anesthesia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 August 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170801111017.htm>.

Oregano, thyme may hold hope for wasting syndrome disease, study suggests

Date: August 1, 2017

Source: University of Iowa

Summary:
Fresh thyme and oregano offer a savory touch to a tasty dish, but a researcher recently discovered natural compounds in the herbs that may offer a treatment for cachexia or "wasting syndrome" as it is more commonly known.

Fresh thyme and oregano offer a savory touch to a tasty dish, but a University of Iowa researcher recently discovered natural compounds in the herbs that may offer a treatment for cachexia or "wasting syndrome" as it is more commonly known.

Wasting syndrome is characterized by a loss of weight and muscle atrophy, and largely found in patients who suffer from cancer, kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart failure.

In pre-clinical studies, compounds in thyme and oregano have demonstrated a greater than 37 percent increase in exercise tolerance and a 15 percent increase in muscle mass of certain body muscles. The discovery was a "serendipitous finding" in the lab of Rajan Sah, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of Internal Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Iowa.

"When we exercise and move our muscles, we activate calcium cycling to cause muscle contraction," said Sah. "This same calcium signal also activates signaling pathways to increase skeletal muscle endurance and also skeletal muscle size."

Sah's research team hypothesized that low level calcium cycling induced by these natural compounds might promote improved exercise capacity and overall metabolic health associated with healthy muscle mass.

"We tested these compounds in sedentary mice and found a dramatic improvement in exercise endurance and a mild increase in muscle size of certain muscle groups," Sah says.

The intellectual property associated with this discovery was recently licensed by the UI Research Foundation to Innovus Pharma, an over-the-counter consumer goods and specialty pharmaceutical company that commercializes non-prescription medicine and consumer care products. The company plans to develop the discovery into an over-the-counter (OTC) product to combat cachexia.

"The oncology supportive care market is a very large unmet medical market with limited choices to both physicians and patients," said Bassam Damaj, chief executive officer of Innovus Pharma. "The treatment of cachexia just doesn't exist. It is a miserable, frequent event that every physician knows about and many patients experience, but there is simply little available against it and nothing to prevent it."

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Iowa. Original written by Rebekah Tilley. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Cite This Page:
University of Iowa. "Oregano, thyme may hold hope for wasting syndrome disease, study suggests." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 August 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170801160359.htm>.

Collaboration between pet owners, vets and researchers helps dogs and children with a rare and severe epilepsy

Date: August 2, 2017

Source: University of Surrey

Summary:
New hope is being given to children who suffer from a rare and severe form of epilepsy, thanks to new, unique research.

New hope is being given to children who suffer from a rare and severe form of epilepsy, thanks to unique research carried out by the University of Surrey’s School of Veterinary Medicine and Fitzpatrick Referrals in Surrey.

The research, published in PLOS One, has identified the progression of Lafora disease, a devastating form of epilepsy which affects up to 50 young children worldwide. Lafora’s disease also affects dogs and the examination of affected canines will help develop effective treatment which can be used to treat children with the illness.

Working with eminent specialists in the human form of Lafora at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, researchers surveyed the owners of 27 miniature wirehaired dachshund, a breed with a high prevalence of the illness, over the course of 12 months to uncover the clinical signs and physical advancement of the disease. The insight will help shape the treatment available for this rare disease, which affects 50 children worldwide each year.

The devastating Lafora illness is a fatal form of epilepsy caused by gene mutation, leading to abnormal levels of glycogen in the body. These abnormal levels of glycogen cause children and dogs to suffer progressive seizures, dementia and loss of walking ability.

Researchers discovered that the most common clinical sign of Lafora is reflex and spontaneous muscle contractions, uncontrollable jerks and generalised seizures. Other common signs include ‘focal seizures’, ‘jaw smacking,’ ‘fly catching’, ‘panic attacks’ and ‘aggression.’

Dr Clare Rusbridge, Reader in Veterinary Neurology at the University of Surrey and Chief Neurologist at Fitzpatrick Referrals, said: “Lafora disease is a fatal disease that causes unbearable suffering for dogs and in rare cases young children.

“Due to its rarity, little is known about the onset of this illness but what we have discovered, with the help of dog owners, is the clinical sign of Lafora helping to lead to quicker diagnosis. The more we learn about Lafora, the better chance we have of treating it effectively.”

The longstanding relationship between Dr Rusbridge and the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto has led to the ground-breaking collaboration between human and veterinary medicine, which led to the discovery of the canine Lafora genetic mutation in 2005.

Armed with this knowledge, campaigning by the Wirehaired Dachshund Club and Dachshund Breed Council has led to an increased awareness and testing for the disease in breeding animals. In the space of just 5 years, the proportion of litters bred with a risk of Lafora-affected puppies has been reduced from 55% to under 5%.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Surrey. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
Lindsay Swain, Gill Key, Anna Tauro, Saija Ahonen, Peixiang Wang, Cameron Ackerley, Berge A. Minassian, Clare Rusbridge. Lafora disease in miniature Wirehaired Dachshunds. PLOS ONE, 2017; 12 (8): e0182024 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182024

Cite This Page:
University of Surrey. "Collaboration between pet owners, vets and researchers helps dogs and children with a rare and severe epilepsy." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 August 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170802153909.htm>.